EMD (embeddedness)

Embeddedness measures the degree to which a space is spatially embedded into the contexts with increasing radius. It is defined as the rate of change in node count, based on either axial or segment representations. It seeks to investigate how the spatial structure of a city is organised at different scales, varying from connecting one street with its immediately surrounding streets to aggregating all the streets into a well-structured city as a whole.


Yang, T. & Hillier, B. (2007), The fuzzy boundary: the spatial definition of urban areas, In: the Proceedings of 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, 091-16. pp.091-08;

Yang, T. & Hillier, B. (2012),The impact of spatial parameters on spatial structuring, In: the Proceedings of 8th International Space Syntax Symposium, 8019:1-23. pp.1-2.